nontoxicprint

Nontoxic Printmaking, Safe Painting & Printed Art




On Acrylic Resist Etching, Acrylics           
CONTENT  |  SEARCH          
   + The Art of Polymer Paints
Acrylics, Polymer Paints and Polymerization:  
Toxicity and Safety Considerations


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     Print Gallery
     Plastics  (Health in The Arts)


Eduardo Paolozzi, 1996,
experimental artwork
for
acrylic resist etching
projects (middle)


by Friedhard Kiekeben, 2018

note: this combined page is relevant to both printmaking
acrylics and to acrylic paints and painting mediums in general


Many Media in One: Acrylic paint products today
dominate the world of artist paints,
and have over the years also been
adopted for many other applications
in silkscreen printing, etching, collagraph printing,
and are also found in glues, mediums, binders,
home decorating paints, craft products, and more.


The polymer-forming, 'water-based', paints
contained in tubs, bottles and tubes
are almost universally thought of 末
and advertised 末 as a safe,

and exceedingly useful technique and material...

yet few of us know what is actually in the mix;
most brands and their formulae are patented
and ingredient lists are often hard to obtain.


In the following we will shed some light on the matter, and try to convey an understanding of why acrylics should be regarded as powerfully reactive 末 and potentially damaging 末 chemicals, while being the useful, colorful, versatile, and essential buttery substance in much of professional art making that so many artists have come to rely on, across many media.








Acrylic Resist Etching: An Introduction

Many artists are familiar with acrylic painting, but what is Acrylic Resist Etching? Intaglio Printmaking
is not just a particular way of creating images, of working in a sculptural way, or of making prints, but all of those things in a single process. A blank plate becomes the basis for virtually limitless creativity, employing a variety of tools and methods to produce marks with great breadth of expression.The grooves, indentations, ridges, scars and scratches produced by intaglio mark making turn the flat surface of the plate into a textured, eroded landscape. These lines, textures and tonal areas are fully revealed in the final intaglio print. The Acrylic Resist Etching system makes use of three key methods to produce marks on a metal plate: dry techniques, etch techniques and collagraph. These can be used independently or in combination, and often acrylics are used to achieve desired effects.


Through the introduction of acrylic paint, varnishes  and mediums into the process, printmaking has obtained a new affinity with the materials of painting. In the following we will discuss both topics of contemporary printmaking, and of acrylic paints and mediums in tandem, and anyone interested in either the new forms of printing, or in painting with acrylic paints, will gain insights into usage, chemistry, and safety of these now connected forms and mediums.


In the more mechanical or dry intaglio techniques, indentations on the hard surface are made by the artist using a variety of metal working tools, such as a drypoint needle, pieces of sandpaper, or even an electric engraving tool. With the etch techniques the process is more indirect. The artist creates mordant resistant deposits on the plate using acrylics, so that the corrosive bath can erode exposed areas of metal, which will then hold ink.

Thirdly, there are the collagraph or building-up processes in which additional layers are added to a plate. Due to their toughness, acrylics are highly suitable for this approach. Most of the new grounds, such as a hard ground or ImagOn, effortlessly stand up to the rigors of etching and of printing. This innovative printing from acrylic intaglio surfaces has the added advantage of easy wiping, and a clean plate tone is much easier to achieve than on a metal surface. The chosen method(s) selected to create a plate may vary, but the inking, wiping, and printing process is common to all intaglio methods. For more information on inking, wiping and printing, click on the following link:






Acrylic paint seen with an
electron microscope









Electron Micrograph of Acrylic Polymer Chains.
Photo taken at University of Maine during a research collaboration, courtesy of Surface Science Institute U Maine, 1997

Groce/Kiekeben/Greenwood






Methyl methacrylate is a reactive resin found in most acrylics |
use only de-ionized water to dilute acrylics
to ensure full polymerization, and use good ventilation;
the highly reactive MMA is not considered 'nontoxic'.




The Art of Polymers


Acrylics undergo a dramatic transformation during drying; this is called polymerisation. Tiny acrylic globules, or monomers float individually in a watery emulsion and then link together as the water evaporates. This process can also be aided by the application of gentle heat - by placing the plate in a drying cabinet after the application of acrylics, for example, or by using a hairdryer on the plate during initial application. Industry wants us to believe that acrylics are completely inert and similar to say watercolors drying, and at first glance the method seems very similar. Behind the scenes of an acrylic paint application, incredibly complex and energetic chemistry is at work, which is not entirely understood by science in all its facets and interactions.



- what is acrylic paint?
image: Acrylic Paint Review


The action of 'initiator compounds' on the bulk monomer-globules sets off the multiplication and chain formation. What looks like the gentle formation of a paint film through evaporation of water is, on closer inspection, a very powerful chemical reaction that begins when the acrylic paint has left the can, and water evaporates, effectively cooling the near invisible, high-energy process. The actual reaction is heat-generating, or 'exothermic'. 
"The heat comes from the energy stored in the chemical bonds of the reactant molecules--which is greater than the energy stored in the chemical bonds of product molecules" (Scientific American). Any such reaction is likely to produce unwanted byproducts, 'SVOCs', 末 contained in the mix or airborne 末 and acrylic polymer paints and mediums are no exception to this rule, and in fact the reactivity of free monomeric radicals entering the working atmosphere, entering the body through skin contact, or by inhalation is of increasing medical interest. There evidence that active acrylic monomers can impair the ability for self-repair in human tissue, due to suspected interactions with DNA mechanisms.

Polymerisation is complete when the monomers 末 for instance methyl methacrylates  末 remain firmly linked in long chains, thus turning them into polymers chains, often thousands of molecules long. Once dry, a very tough, plastic-like substance has formed on the metal plate or painting substrate that is both hardwearing, as well as perfectly mordant resistant.
Industry already has a history of exploiting these properties; cars are painted with waterbased paints, and acrylic photo resists - similar to ImagOn or Photec film - are used for making printed circuit boards in the electronics industry. 

Good polymerization typically yields monomer conversion into long, hard polymer chains of 70% to 95%, but any number of factors, temperature, humidity, undeclared chemical additions, or separation of ingredients, can produce incomplete reactions and unwanted - often toxic 末 byproducts that may affect users health. It is known that the suspension/emulsion polymerization techniques employed in water-based paints is intrinsically less efficient than the 'bulk polymerization' found in high-end manufacturing or dentistry, so by-products 末 and how to avoid them 末 should always be of concern.









acrylic monomer beads (Zhejiang University)








Acrylics and other Polymers, and Safety


acrid smelling nerve gas,

green paints, resins and plastics

In the 90s water-based paint products were generally hailed as being THE safe alternative to the then dominant VOC and oil-based systems. Some of the claims of improved safety may hold true, but the idea of 'intrinsic' safety of water based products and polymers is quite exaggerated, and may even be misleading.


Some manufacturers make acrylic paint and printmaking products with fairly 'pure' 末 often more expensive 末 ingredients, full MSDS documentation and certified lab testing, and have a better safety record - such products can be deemed a little closer to 'more controlled' and 'less toxic'. But the large majority of water-based products may carry significant toxicity. Especially cheaper products may contain powerful toxins such as glycol ether, plastic softeners (phthalates), formaldehyde, styrene, unreacted or concentrated volatile monomers, or trace amounts of benzene, a recognized carcinogen.


Surprisingly to the artist and consumer, some of the recent safety scares in paints and printing materials are connected to products that were actually marketed as being 'safe' and even 'green'. Users are advised to familiarize themselves with safety facts and recommendations beyond manufacturer's claims and advertisements; even MSDS information may be misleading, incomplete, or incorrect. Polymer chemistry is highly complex, and chemical firms are known to hide some key facts behind brand names, scientific language and impenetrable patents.


Invariably, marketing plays on the 'water-based' (equals safe?) nature of formulations, while any monomer emulsion is bound to contain solvent additions that are referred to as co-polymers, inhibitors, and catalysts. Most of these are quite toxic, especially to the regular and long term user. Also, most acrylics admixtures contain such small amounts of actual de-ionized water that calling them 'water-based' would seem inaccurate; it just sounds better and assures artists and users. 'Hydrophilic' might be a better description for these complex mixes of semi-liquid plastic globules, solvents, and co-polymer solvents, as it indicates that the paint or medium can readily be diluted further for layers and wash work through the addition of water.



... read on for more detail on the mixed and compelling history of acrylics, and their underlying chemistry





Acrolein, Green Marketing, and Resin Reactors


Acrylics owe their name to the discovery of 'acrylic acid' around 1840. Chemists were aghast at the 'acrid' stench emanating from a new fluid they had made, realized it was highly toxic, and decided there weren't any practical applications for it. Over 60 years went past until, in 1901, an ambitious German chemist, Otto Rhm, did doctoral research in Tbingen, and saw the potential of acrylic acid and its derivatives to be polymerized and made into useful compounds, such as hard plastics.


During the first world war, 'Acrolein', a compound found in burnt fat 末 near identical to acrylic acid 末 was employed as a weapon of war (nerve gas). During the 1920s and 30s the German chemist Rhm set up in business, (embedded in Nazi Germany, but also operating in New York), secured dozens of patents for plastics, and helped create what would become one of the largest multi-national chemical operations in the world. 


Acrolein, acrylic acid, is also prevalent in cigarette smoke, and remains the essential base ingredient in industrial production processes for acrylics and plastics. Here, acrylic acid is 'reacted' in multiple iterations into more complex compounds, and then into the acrylates/monomers that are found in most acrylic paint products; these easily form polymers and long polymer chains during a paint application,

because inherent double bonds in the carbon structure are very reactive.












Setting up safe Reactions


In 'good' 末 and more expensive 末 acrylic products this reactivity may be controlled and made 'relatively safe', but cases are known when a strong 'acrid and nauseating smell' from an unidentified source, was present in acrylics, paints, varnishes, or polymer plates, possibly resulting in serious sickness in some users; this may well be attributable to the presence of residual 'Acrolein'. If a variety of polymer paint, film, or plate product has this kind of strong and acrid smell, (this is quite rare), extra caution would be advised.


Through clever marketing, acrylics generally have a more positive perception in the general public, while medical science takes a different view, and recognizes significant toxicity (e.g. dental, respiratory, reproductive, dermatological; also: nail varnish/beauty). As opposed to traditional solvent based paints, the toxicity of acrylics seems to manifest itself more strongly through long-term and regular use, but not so much in casual or occasional use. (It is thought that the body has a degree of ability to metabolize/hydrolize some of the compounds present).


Some professional artists and house-painters also become strongly sensitized, become quite ill, and need to move away from acrylic products.


Industrial 'Acrylates' manufacturing in resin reactors is highly skilled, technical, and complex, and is also one of the most difficult to control, reactive, and potentially accident-prone, chemical industrial manufacturing processes.


Internally, industry acknowledges inherent problems in producing acrylic monomers of high purity and low toxicity, and without doubt some toxic impurities are virtually always present in any finished acrylic paint, medium, or end product.


Industrial workers use ventilation and respiratory protection when handling the various monomeric solutions, and artists and consumers of acrylic admixtures are well advised to do the same.


The various fumes that may be emitted by drying acrylics are not fully understood, and scientists refer to these as 'SVOCs' (semi-volatile compounds). For safety, we'd recommend using good ventilation and some form of respiratory protection, especially when exposed to large areas of drying paint or varnish.



      some additional tips for safe use of acrylics:

  • stir any acrylic paint, or medium before use; this aids the reaction
  • avoid damp environments, to avoid build up of vapor
  • work in a dry, warm, and well ventilated environment
  • use mask with active carbon filter for intensive work
  • only use de-ionized water for thinning;
    (lack of ions/solids aids polymerization,
    yields a better paint surface,
    and makes for a safer process)
  • avoid skin contact and possibly wear gloves














A Painterly Aesthetic
in Intaglio Printmaking


The illustration shown above was made by etching a brass plate in Edinburgh Etch and printing with Akua inks on Hahnemuehle paper.


The variety of marks, washes and reticulations was created by using a combination of the following resists:

  • oil crayon
  • carborundum Speedball wash
  • Crisco smears
  • dry brush marks
  • Hunt Speedball wash
  • Sharpie
  • Lascaux acrylic paint
  • litho crayon





Over two decades ago Keith Howard started etching with waterbased products. Initially, this move was driven simply by a desire to avoid the toxic hazards of traditional intaglio printmaking. To the great excitement of artists, his explorations showed that acrylics could not only emulate the aesthetic created by conventional etching methods - with ease - but could even extend creative versatility. Traditional intaglio printmaking has a strong linear bias, but is lacking in painterly possibilities. By contrast, Acrylic Resist Etching introduces a new breadth of painterly mark making to the intaglio medium while retaining all of its essential graphic qualities.

Safe Photo Etching for Photographers and Artists
Keith Howard, 1999, Wynne Resources, Alberta
ISBN 0-9695577-0-1




(below) Keith Howard, range of acrylic wash or destruction ground effects from etched copper plates, 1995


Properties of Acrylics used in Etching


Acrylics brushed, poured, rolled, or sprayed onto a metal plate form a strong bond with the plate surface. During etching, acrylics do not tend to chip off along the edges of the eroded intaglio, as is the case with oil-based resists and, if required, can even be left on plates during printing. In the liquid state acrylic grounds can be easily cleaned from brushes or work surfaces with soapy water, but become water and mordant resistant once they have fully hardened.

Acrylics can also acquire self-texturing and tonal qualities when they are diluted rather than used neat. This unique property is exploited in acrylic resist etching techniques such as the "destruction ground" or the diluted SOFT GROUND. Both of these are designed to conjure up reticulated wash effects on the print which resemble lithography or wash painting, whilst infusing them with the depth and crispness that is unique to intaglio printmaking.

The acrylic wash process works like homeopathy: the more diluted the solution the more potent the effect. For a standard acrylic resist wash medium, dilute about 1 part acrylic medium to about 50 parts water. This will yield a black after about an hour of etching in Edinburgh Etch. Lighter tones are created by filling in with more concentrated layers of acrylic medium. The rust  colored Hunt Speedball Screen Filler is Keith Howard's preferred wash medium. Lascaux make a dedicated wash medium which is ideal as a wash resist on zinc and steel plates.



 

 
        1 : 50 = Acrylic Wash Medium










sdd;l;l;ll
Richard Hamwi: Chime, 1983, (Spandorfer)
watercolor and collage.
"I use acrylic medium and adhesive because it is
nontoxic and has long-lasting conservation properties."

PVA glue, (polyvinyl acetate), was invented
in 1912 by a German chemist,
and is one of the oldest and most widely used polymer
binders. It is both archival and normally safe to use.

PVA emulsions are synthesized from vinyl actetate monomer, which is toxic.

Cheap PVA glues or mediums may possibly be contaminated with residual VA.









The Art of Removing Plastics


It is often thought that plastics are hard to break or dissolve. However, the polymers used in acrylic resist etching are easily broken down and removed by alkaline substances such as sodium carbonate. This is essential for the speedy reclaiming of plates after etching. The alkaline process performing this miracle is known to chemists as saponification. During this chemical transformation the alkaline stripping solution essentially breaks up the polymer chains of tough acrylics and converts them into a harmless soap solution.

Once saturated, the soda ash stripping solution can be safely disposed of (after straining off any remaining solid particles), and may even be re-used as a neutralising agent for a spent etching solution.

Now there are also new kinds of safe solvents based on orange oil, or D-Limonene, that work more like conventional petroleum spirits, but without their health concerns - even hardened acrylics and inks are easily and safely dissolved, layer by layer. For example: ZAcryl D-Solve (see below).





Direct Brush Marks and Open Bite

 

An image can be created freely on a metal plate by painting marks directly onto the surface with acrylic stop-out varnish. Using brushes of various shapes and sizes will allow you to work in a fluid and painterly way. The thinking you have to apply is typical for many processes in intaglio printmaking: in essence you are regarding the metal plate as an eroded background into which you are shaping islands of light. All the brush marks you apply with stop-out varnish remain raised as non-printing areas, while the areas surrounding them are positive, or open bite, and are turned into the eroded tones and textures that will ultimately transfer ink onto the paper.

This kind of direct etching technique produces very distinct results on different kinds of metal. On copper the image resulting from an open bite is mainly made up of an eroded ridge around the painted marks. On steel the areas surrounding the stopped-out marks turn into dark areas. However, painting on the plate with stop-out varnish is by no means restricted to creating patches on the plate. By adjusting your brushing action in a more dry or streaky fashion you can create lively hatches and textures that can then print as vibrant line work; using quite a stiff, bristly brush is best for this.

You can also try out different dabbing devices like textured rags or sponges soaked in stop-out varnish to add variety to the composition. Whilst the acrylic is wet you can also use a brush handle or a piece of card as a squeegee to draw lines or scrape marks back into the surface. Any stop-out mark that is squeegeed into a very thin layer will produce a tonal effect, not unlike the destruction ground technique.
Pollock-like drips can be made on the plate with an acrylic binder (such as Lascaux 2060, or Golden GAC 200) or a waterbased wood glue.
















Vincent Finazzo, Delineation I, aluminum etching,  2008


After etching and stripping the plate, more layers of open bite marks may be repeatedly added to enhance the complexity and depth of the work. The direct mark making approach can also be combined with the destruction ground approach, where tonal wash qualities are produced by diluting the acrylic grounds with water.

There are many more exciting ways of making direct mordant resistant marks on the plate which are strictly speaking open bite techniques; some of these can be etched straight after completing a design on the plate. For instance pre-cut pieces of adhesive tape (acting as mordant resists) can be stuck directly to the metal surface to produce geometric shapes in an etching. Crisp lines of varying thickness can be drawn directly on the plate surface with waterproof felt tip pens. This works because the acrylic ink used in these pens resists corrosion, allowing you to etch away the metal around the drawn lines.

Equally immediate are the many "greasy" materials that can be very successfully used for direct mark making. For example, the mark of a soft wax crayon can give a very textured etched line similar to a crayon line on paper. Mark making with things such as Vaseline or solid vegetable fat (Crisco) is of a more experimental kind, but can be extremely successful for laying a base of etched tone and texture before further definition is given to the plate through another, more controlled, technique.

Similar to diluted acrylics, these materials present a permeable surface that results in variations in the depth of the etch because of the differing thicknesses of the resist layers. This creates a gradation of tones on the print.
The possibilities of this approach are extensive and it is left to the imaginative printmaker to explore and develop his or her own direct etching vocabulary.









Tom Drew, shaped print and plate, 
acrylic resist hard ground etching and 
etched aluminum plate
(Saline Sulfate Etch)






Tailored Acrylic Grounds and Varnishes     
 
See    ETCHING INGREDIENTS


Most acrylic paints and binders may not only be used for painting, but also as etching resists. There are a number of dedicated stop-out varnishes on the market, such as the Golden Acrylic Stop-out Solution (Polymetaal) which makes a good all-round varnish for etching. For the direct mark making techniques especially, it is well worth utilising a broader range of acrylics as resists - preferably after familiarizing yourself with their creative properties on a sample plate.

The two key properties needed in an acrylic etching ground are (i) good mordant resistance on the one hand and (ii) easy removal after etching on the other. Interesting effects can be etched from directly applied acrylic paint marks, but due to their high pigment content these will eventually break down, causing the plate to foul-bite. Stopping-out with a clear acrylic binder will yield much greater or total mordant resistance, but some strong binders such as Golden GAC 200 or the Badger Aquatint Solution, can be difficult to remove in the soda ash stripping solution.

By contrast, Future/Pledge floor finish (SC Johnson's Wax Klear or Klar/Klir in Europe), gives both good mordant resistance and is easy to remove; but the fluidity of this product makes it less suitable as a thick stop-out solution for direct mark making. The straightforward technique of using Future as an etching ground was first publicized by Keith Howard in 1991, and since then has become extremely popular in the printmaking world. This clear acrylic represents an ideal etching medium and is used by many contemporary printmakers as their staple hard ground.


During my research at Edinburgh Printmakers, testing a wide range of acrylics, I found a varnish made by Lascaux to be well suited in all its properties as a base ingredient for a number of tailored etching grounds. The product is Lascaux clear gloss varnish 575 - 2060 (mainly available in Europe). Some products, however, do not always including the black coloring often required by etchers.

The varnish 2060 has great mordant resistance on all metals etched in any of the metal salt solutions, whilst being easy to break down in soda ash. The addition of a suitable waterbased coloring or pigment turns the clear varnish into an ideal stop-out varnish for re-etching partial areas of an already bitten plate.

Mixed in equal parts with acrylic paint it makes a stop-out varnish very similar in its painting characteristics to a thick bitumen-based varnish; this is most suitable for the textural direct mark making techniques described earlier. Applied thinly, the 2060 varnish also gives a highly mordant resistant hard ground with very detailed and waxy drawing properties.








        METHOD
      Make up Stop-out varnish for direct mark making as follows:
  1. Fill half a jar with Lascaux clear gloss varnish 575-2060 or Golden GAC 200
  2. Mix with 50% of Lascaux Studio acrylic paint black 526 or similar product


        METHOD

      Make up Stop-out varnish for re-etching as follows:

  1. Use neat Lascaux clear gloss varnish 575-2060
  2. For an opaque ground mix with 10% KOH-I-NOR 3080-4 Universal Ink

Note: Thick layers of acrylic stop-out varnish may need a 10 to 15 minute immersion in a fresh, concentrated soda ash solution to be removed from the etched plate, or use one of the citrus-based solvents (see below). Use a non-scratch scouring pad and hot water to shift all remaining particles.



today, there are numerous ready-made acrylics and resists for printmaking on the market, see links below, or consult the web pages of printmaking suppliers and acrylic paint makers


Hard and Soft Ground
Aquatint







Safer Stripping with Orange Zest Solvents - sample

An acrylic hard ground can be stripped off in a strong soda ash solution (1 part crystals to 3 parts warm water). Or use a citrus-based safe solvents now on the market (such as 'D*Solve', 'CitraSolv', or 'De-Solv-it') many of which can remove acrylics, etching grounds and hardened ink and paint.

'This truly revolutionary solvent was formulated as an alternative to petroleum-based turpentines and thinners. It is made from 100% renewable agricultural resources of soy, corn, and citrus, and is non-polluting, non-carcinogenic, and bio-degradable. Less than a teaspoon will thoroughly clean a large plate. DSolve will even strip dried ink from etched lines.' 



There is a growing number of such citrus-based solvents on the market. The key ingredient, D-Limonene, also known as orange oil, the safe and innovative solvent extracted from orange peel, can be purchased directly from the citrus industry. For example, see www.citrusdepot.net. This solvent is more powerful than mineral spirits, strong enough to dissolve hardened acrylics, oil paint, printing ink, (and even some plastics) with ease, yet medical studies have found no carcinogenic or neurotoxin hazards comparable to the petrochemical solvents. Users should, nevertheless, still handle the solvent with care: ensure good ventilation/use vapor mask and take fire precautions when using the new orange oil solvents. Unlike oil-based products, orange oil is considered biodegradable. 

Some big brand 'orange' or 'citrus' solvents are mixed with traditional solvents, such as Naphtha or Glycol Ether, and cannot be considered a 'safer alternative'. 

For more information click on our Safe Solvents page


IMPORTANT:  ALL LIQUID, VOLATILE, HYDROCARBON-BASED
SOLVENTS REQUIRE SOME FORM OF RESPIRATORY PROTECTION
(this includes both petroleum products, but also bio-based solvents,
such as ethyl alcolhol, soy/ethyl/methyl lactate, orange oil,
and many others)


below, a recent, 'eco-friendly' product, Eco-Solve,

made for artist use:   'NaturalEarthPaint' 

(https://www.naturalearthpaint.com)

"Does not irritate the skin
Does not emit harmful vapors.
Soy-based" (company quote).


       


METHOD
      Make up a Spray Aquatint and Hard Ground (based on this polymer) as follows:

  1. Fill half a clean jar with Lascaux clear gloss varnish 575 - 2060
  2. Add 5 to 10% KOH-I-NOR 3080-4 Universal Ink. Carefully mix the pigment (or acrylic airbrush ink) into the varnish until the mixture reaches opacity. The black ink will not corrupt the mordant resistance of the binder but will make it clearly visible on any metal.
  3. Dilute the mixture with 5 to 15% water to make the spray ink ready for use in an airbrush.

Sprayed as a fine mist the mixture will produce mordant resistant aquatint dots on the plate.
Further passes of the airbrush over the plate result in a finely coated surface, which after 20 minutes of drying makes an ideal, extremely even, malleable and highly responsive hard ground. This sprayed hard ground can be applied directly to a polished and de-greased plate. The varnish does not chip when drawn into and allows for the faithful execution of fine and deep line work, as well as for complex cross-hatching and multiple etching stages.



For more information about about spray aquatint click on the following links:

Aquatint       Intaglio Manual




__________________________________________________________________________________________________
__________________________________________________________________________________________________


Hidden Exposures from
Acrylic Paint Products


SAFETY NOTE: in the USA a number of acrylics now carry a note

warning of a possible cancer hazard.

this may be related to any number factors,

such as formaldehyde content,

or other ingredients such as:





MMA Acrylic, Styrene Acrylic, and Vinyl Acrylic

Low-cost acrylic paint products may also contain styrene, vinyl chloride, or benzene compounds.

(an addition to the cancer risks of all of the above, vinyl chloride is known to cause liver damage,

even from small exposures).

Other common, but frequently undeclared, chemicals found in acrylics include glycol ether,

ammonia, hydroquinone (see below) or MEHQ, various low-level solvents and copolymers (NMP, NEP, etc.),

or the polymerization catalyst Triethylamine (TEA)

which is known to cause eye damage in long exposures.

Most artist acrylics,

末 both as monomers and copolymers 末

also contain butyl acrylate (with suspected strong kidney toxicity), and ethyl acrylate.


(Characterization of Artists' Acrylic Emulsion Paints
Oscar Chiantore , Dominique Scalarone & Tom Learner
Pages 67-82 | Published online: 27 Oct 2010)


Quinones

Due to the exothermic, instable, even explosive, nature of base monomers

virtually all acrylic paint products must contain substantial amounts of 

quinone-based, single benzene-ring, molecules that are added in the factory as 

essential polymerization inhibitors of the paint.

It is probable that some of the volatile (often toxic) quinone molecules

evaporate during any acrylic painting session in an artist's studio, 

while others get incorporated in the solidifying carbon lattice.


Initiators

The two most common polymerization initiators in monomer solutions

are benzoyl peroxide (BPO) and 2,2'-azo-bis-isobutyrylnitrile (AIBN).

Most of the compounds listed here have known adverse effects

on the human DNA system.



Strong Solvents / Strippers

most acrylic paint formulations contain certain amounts of strong solvents

that are also found in paint stripping products. One example is

NMP or 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidone.

The EPA describes NMP as a developmental toxicant.

In 2017, EPA proposed to ban this chemical痴 use in paint stripping.

Some more 'bio-based' paint products contain

ethyl lactate as a strong solvent, which in low concentrations

is considered relatively safe, while being very toxic at high

concentrations.



Polymerization Catalysts


            acrylic paint formulations are known to contain

            triethylamine as a reaction catalyst:

in a lab, the substance requires respiratory protection to avoid lung or kidney damage.




Phthalates in Acrylic Paints


most acrylic paint formulations are likely to contain substantial amounts of phthalate esters,

and especially with cheaper 'vinyl-based acrylics', (which heavily rely on these

bulk additives/softeners), there could be a significant health risk.

Phthalates are one of the most researched and widely debated health risks related to plastics,

and the industry is in the process of finder safer alternatives (for instance citrates)

to these common, mass produced plasticizing and softening agents.


Different phthalates occur in forms that range from a more oil-like substance to

other formulations that are more like a volatile solvent.

In any case, phthalates cannot become part of the long-chain

polymer molecules of cured acrylic paint, and

can easily migrate out of plastics, especially in the

presence of oils or proteins:

this can easily happen by skin contact during painting.


Suspected Effects: Phthalates are thought to interfere with

infant development through disruption of the hormonal systems,

especially in low dose-exposures, and general liver toxicity is also suspected.

While Europe is in the process of implementing regulations

to limit phthalate exposure from plastics, (along with new labeling requirements),

most consumers of plastics or paints in the US are left oblivious to the

presence of migrating phthalates, and there is currently no labeling requirement.

Phthalates are key volume ingredients in many paint

formulations, yet these are not only undeclared on labels

or in SDS sheets, but often also protected as patented 'trade secrets'.




Anti-foaming Agents

all acrylic emulsions contain a tailored anti-foaming

additive, without which the paint produces inferior results

(crackling / frothy paint).

These additives are in themselves complex, patented,

admixtures of various components.

Some of these are relatively

benign, while others are more toxic.

Some formulations are based on mineral oil or silicone,

while others contain ingredients such as

ethylene hydrogenated castor oil,

triisostearates, polyalkyl vinyl ether (may cause liver damage),

polybutadiene, polybutene or polyisoprene



Additives


acrylics contain numerous other additives, such as fungicides, biocides,

preservatives, and surfactants (an essential aid for emulsification, typically

polyethoxylate (PEO) - based nonionic surfactant, as found in detergents).

Especially in cheaper formulations, preservatives

have been known to be harmful substances, such

as quarternary ammonium compounds,

phenol, or arsenic disulfide.

Most modern acrylics also contain paraffin,

which helps with water resistance and

gives 'gloss' properties to the final paint film, when dry.




Our advice


always ensure airflow, (use fans and open windows), and wear lightweight organic vapor mask

with active carbon filter / acrylics also cure more fully - and safely - in a dry warm environment.

Acrylics, for instance when damp, may emit vapors of chemically reactive mist

末 e.g. SVOCs / free monomer radicals 末 that may be damaging to health.
(respiratory, dermatological, reproductive). 

Artist paint manufacturers rarely refer to such exposures on paint tubes or in SDS sheets,

but acknowledgement can sometimes be found in 'how-to'

guides on acrylic painting.


Avoid working with styrene or vinyl chloride based products:

use '100% pure acrylic' paints whenever possible, 

as these are considered safer.


In poorly designed 'polymers' some of the base compounds

will still be present after curing, while 'well performing'

polymers consume and use up most of the compounds present

in finely tuned successive (internal) chemical reactions,

resulting in a solid hard wearing substance (paint film) that is

then considered inert and 'nontoxic'.


__________________________________________________________________________________________________



Protection against low level VOC exposure

Today there are many paint products that are marketed as 壮afe, yet there may still be harmful low-level VOC emissions, such as glycol ether. Examples: many water-based paints, acrylic floor finish, some artist acrylics, low odor, low VOC solvents, and printmaking resists.

Although a full organic respirator may be impractical for a day痴 work we would recommend at the very least wearing a disposable light weight mask that offers some organic vapor protection. Dispose of the mask after a day痴 work (about $ 5 per mask), coupled with use of fans for extraction.


Product example:


3M Particulate Respirator 8514, N95, with Nuisance Level Organic Vapor Relief



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     Safe Painting Guide                                                       







Domestic Paints / Francesco Clemente: Sun, 1980
 Cobra Water-Miscible Oil Paints

                                    






Jackson Pollock in his studio, ゥ Hans Namuth Estate










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(from: A pilot study to evaluate VOCs outgassed in polymer filaments, Shari Cheves, 2014)

Inherent Instability in Monomers and Polymers

"Plastic polymers are created from monomers almost exclusively derived from crude oil with far-reaching impacts on the health of humans and the environment. These highly reactive monomers form stable bonds in polymers through polymerization, though the chemical reactions are never quite complete. This inherent instability contributes to the release of residual monomers, plasticizers, ame retardants, solvents, and other additives as polymers degrade.

Based on the toxicity of monomers, research has defined the most hazardous polymer families as polyurethanes, polyacrylonitriles, polyvinyl chloride, epoxy resins, and styrenic copolymers. Monomers and other by-products are released through various modes of degradation such as heat. Nitrogen-containing plastics such as nylon and polyurethanes typically release hydrogen cyanide; chlorine-containing materials such as polyvinyl chloride typically release hydrogen chloride; and polystyrene, polyesters such as polycarbonate, nylons, and polyurethanes may be more likely to degrade into their original monomers."






________________________________________________________________________________________________

the development of polymer paints came out of
the field of the chemistry of plastics that
emerged in the late 19th century,
so both fields are connected in many ways

below, an in-depth overview,
for additional reference




Plastics in Art:

Safety and Overview


Introduction


Plastics are used widely in many artistic applications, including: sculpture made from finished or formed plastics, the fabrication of props for theater and film, special effect make up, and plastics are used by museums and galleries in exhibits, displays, transportation and storage of art. 

Working with plastic resins involves chemically linking together many small molecules (monomers) to form the plastic (a polymer), or cross-linking many polymer chains with monomers to form a thermosetting plastic.  Hardeners initiate the reaction.

Catalysts, accelerators, fillers, pigments and dyes, and other additives are also used.  Resins can be molded, cast, laminated, and foamed.

Working with finished plastics involves changing the plastic physically, rather than chemically.  These processes include heating, softening, bending, gluing, machining, sawing, finishing, and similar mechanical processes.



Acrylic Resins

Acrylic resins can be used for both casting plastics and acrylic cements.  There are two types: monomer and monomer/polymer mixtures.  Both types use benzoyl peroxide as the hardener.  The monomer is methyl methacrylate.

Polymerization is carried out at high temperatures which must be controlled carefully.

Hazards
    1.    Methyl methacrylate monomer is moderately toxic by skin contact, eye contact, and inhalation.  It is an irritant and causes headaches, irritability, and narcosis when inhaled.  It is a common sensitizer, and may cause asthma.
    2.    Benzoyl peroxide hardener is flammable and explosive, and is a slight skin and eye irritant.  See the section on Organic Peroxides later in the chapter for  further  details.
    3.    Finely divided acrylic polymer dust is also a sensitizer.
Precautions
    1.    Wear gloves and have good local exhaust ventilation when using acrylic resins.  If local exhaust ventilation is not possible, use a window exhaust fan, and wear a NIOSH-approved organic vapor respirator, if needed.
    2.    See section below for more information on peroxides.
    3.    Wear an NIOSH-approved toxic dust mask when handling finely divided acrylic polymer dust.
 
Amino and Phenolic Resins

Urea-formaldehyde, melamine-formaldehyde, phenol-formaldehyde, and resorcinol-formaldehyde resins are used as thermosetting adhesives and, in the case of phenol-formaldehyde, as a binder in sand casting.  These are usually available as two-component systems with formaldehyde or paraformaldehyde as the hardener.  While urea-formaldehyde and resorcinol-formaldehyde resins can be cured at room temperature, the others require heat.

Hazards
    1.    Amino and phenolic resins contain formaldehyde, which is highly toxic by inhalation, highly toxic by eye contact and ingestion, and moderately toxic by skin contact.  Formaldehyde is an irritant and strong sensitizer, and is a probable human carcinogen.
    2.    Phenol in phenol-formaldehyde resin is highly toxic by skin absorption and inhalation, and can severely burn skin.
    3.    If these resins are improperly cured and contain residual formaldehyde, they may cause irritation and allergic reactions. Trace amounts of free formaldehyde may cause allergic reactions in people who are already sensitized to it.
    4.    Machining, sanding, or excessive heating of the cured resins can cause decomposition releasing formaldehyde, carbon monoxide, hydrogen cyanide (with amino resins) and phenol (with phenol-formaldehyde resins).
Precautions
    1.    Avoid using formaldehyde resin systems.
    2.    Wear gloves when handling amino and phenolic resins.  Follow instructions carefully for proper curing.
    3.    Local exhaust ventilation is necessary if handling the cured resin involves heating and/or decomposition.
    4.    People who have become sensitized to formaldehyde will probably have to avoid these resins.
 



Epoxy Resins

Epoxy resins are used for casting, laminating, and molding, and as adhesives.  When mixed with stone or metal dusts, they resemble actual stone or metal.  Epoxy resins consist of two components: the epoxy resin; and hardeners, which are often amines.  Mixing gives off heat which can vaporize solvents and other components.

Hazards
    1.    Epoxy resins are moderately toxic skin and respiratory irritants and sensitizers.  Resins containing diglycidyl ethers are probable human carcinogens, skin and eye irritants, and may damage the bone marrow.
    2.    Amine hardeners are moderately toxic by skin contact and highly toxic by inhalation.  They are potent skin sensitizers and irritants, causing dermatitis in almost 50% of workers regularly exposed to them.  They also can cause asthma, coughing, bronchospasm, and other respiratory difficulties. 
Other hardeners are also toxic.
    3.    Epoxy resins contain solvents of varying toxicity. 

Precautions
    1.    Wear goggles and gloves when using epoxy resins.
    2.    Use with local exhaust ventilation, or work at a bench against a window with a window exhaust fan.  If ventilation is not adequate, wear a NIOSH-approved respirator with organic vapor cartridges for large amounts.
    3.    If the epoxy system contains flammable solvents, follow careful safety procedures for fire prevention (see our data sheet on Fire Prevention for more information).
 
[Occupational contact dermatitis due to epoxy products frequently involves the exposed parts of the body, with the typical clinical features of an airborne contact dermatitis.  Epoxy resins are in fact included in both the list of irritant and allergic contactants.  We report here 7 cases of airborne occupational contact dermatitis due to epoxy products.

(Artists working with epoxy resins and glues must not only avoid skin contact, but should have good ventilation in order to prevent airborne contact with the epoxy vapors.  - Ed.)]







Polyester Resin

Polyester resins are used for laminating, molding, and casting.  For molding and laminating, fiberglass is the most commonly used reinforcement.  In most polyester resins, styrene is used as the cross-linker; other cross-linkers include methyl methacrylate, vinyl toluene, and alpha-methyl styrene.  Ketone solvents are sometimes included.  Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide is the commonest hardener, although benzoyl peroxide and cumene hydroperoxide are also sometimes used.  Promoters or accelerators used with polyester resin include cobalt naphthenate and dimethylaniline.

Hazards
    1.    Styrene is moderately toxic by skin contact and highly toxic by inhalation.  It is absorbed through the skin.  Styrene is a probable human carcinogen, a potent narcotic, and a respiratory and eye irritant, causing coughing and burning of the eyes and nose.  Styrene can also possibly damage the liver and nervous system.  While it has good initial odor-warning properties, olfactory fatigue may set in.  Vinyl toluene and alpha-methyl styrene have similar toxicity to styrene.  Methyl methacrylate is discussed above.
    2.    Cobalt naphthenate is moderately toxic by skin contact and inhalation, and possibly causes allergies.
    3.    Dimethylaniline is highly toxic by skin absorption and inhalation causing methemoglobinemia (in which the hemoglobin in the red blood cells is converted into a form which will not release oxygen), resulting in cyanosis.  Primary symptoms are a bluish discoloration of the lips, ears, and nail beds, and then headaches, weakness, and oxygen starvation.

    4.    The hazards of peroxide catalysts are discussed below.
    5.    Fiberglass is a skin and respiratory irritant.  Inhalation of fiberglass dust created by cutting fiberglass or sanding the cured fiberglass-containing polyester can cause irritation and other respiratory problems.  The classification of fiberglass is  "reasonably anticipated to be a carcinogen," by the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, and "possibly carcinogenic" to humans by the International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC).
    6.    Styrene, vinyl toluene, a-methyl styrene, and cleaning solvents such as methyl ethyl ketone are flammable.  Acetone is extremely flammable.

Precautions
    1.    Wear gloves and protective goggles when pouring and handling polyester resins.
    2.    Use in a local exhaust hood or use a window exhaust fan with a NIOSH-approved organic vapor respirator.  Large scale polyester resin use should be done in a large spray booth or while wearing a supplied-air respirator.
    3.    Clean up any spills immediately.  Cover the work area with disposable paper towels or newspapers.
    4.    Do not use styrene for clean-up; instead, use acetone.
    5.    Wear clothing that covers the arms and legs and remove immediately after work; then shower.
    6.    Wear a NIOSH-approved toxic dust respirator when cutting fiberglass or sanding the cured sculpture.  If the sculpture is not completely cured, wear organic vapor cartridges as well.
    7.    Cover exposed skin (neck, face) with a protective barrier cream.
    8.    Wear heavy neoprene rubber when handling dimethylaniline accelerator.  Be very careful not to spill it on clothing since it can permeate through the material.
    9.    Store flammable solvents safely.  Do not use solvents or resin near an open flame or lit cigarette.  Store solvent or resin-soaked rags or paper in an approved self-closing waste disposal can which is emptied every day.
    10.    See below for information on organic peroxides.

 


Polyurethane Resins

Polyurethane resins can be used to make elastomers (e.g. coatings and molds), adhesives, and rigid or flexible foams. They are usually two-component systems, consisting of Part A - the polyol, and Part B - the isocyanates used to cross-link the polyol.  The polyol also contains such as metal salts or amine catalysts.  Foaming systems also contain blowing agents, often fluorocarbons (e.g., freons).
Polyurethane elastomer resins can be one or two component systems.  The one-component systems are air or moisture cured. Most household urethane varnishes and paints do not contain isocyanates, but are the finished polyurethane dissolved in solvents, which dry by evaporation.

Hazards
    1.    Isocyanates are extremely toxic by inhalation, causing bronchitis, bronchospasm, chemical pneumonia, and severe acute and chronic asthma at very low concentrations, even in people without a prior history of allergies.  They also cause severe eye irritation.  Methyl isocyanate was the chemical that killed over 2500 people in Bhopal, India when released into the atmosphere several years ago. 
The degree of hazard depends on the volatility of the diisocyanate and its physical form.  TDI (toluene diisocyanate) is the most volatile and the most hazardous.  MDI (diphenyl methane diisocyanate) is less volatile and, less hazardous than TDI.  Polymeric isocyanates usually contain about 50% MDI.  If heated or sprayed, any isocyanate is extremely hazardous.  Note that isocyanates cannot be detected by odor until the concentration is many times higher than recommended levels.

    2.    Amines used as catalysts are moderately toxic by skin or eye contact or inhalation since they are sensitizers and irritants.
They may cause allergies.
    3.    Organotin compounds used as catalysts are highly toxic by skin absorption, damaging the liver and nervous system.  They may also cause skin allergies and irritation.
    4.    Fluorocarbon blowing agents used for foaming are slightly toxic by inhalation.  They can cause narcosis at high concentrations, changes in the heart rhythm (arrhythmia), and even cardiac arrest at very high concentrations.

    5.    One-component polyurethane systems using precapped isocyanate polymers are less hazardous than the two-component systems due to low volatility, unless they are sprayed.
    6.    Dust from sanding and cutting finished polyurethane may cause skin and respiratory problems due to the presence of unreacted chemicals from the curing process.
    7.    Heating polyurethane is highly hazardous, since decomposition products include carbon monoxide, nitrogen oxides, acrolein, and hydrogen cyanide, all of which are highly or extremely toxic by inhalation.


Precautions
    1.    Do not work with polyurethane resins if you have any history of allergies, asthma or other respiratory problems.
    2.    Do not spray polyurethane resins unless it is done inside a spray booth or you wear a supplied-air respirator (e.g. self- contained breathing apparatus).
    3.    Mix polyurethane resins in a local exhaust hood, or wear a NIOSH-approved full face gas mask with organic vapor canister or air-supplied respirator.  Use an exhaust fan to remove the vapors from the room.
    4.    Wear gloves and goggles when handling these resins.
    5.    When sawing, sanding, or otherwise fabricating polyurethane, wear a NIOSH-approved respirator with organic vapor cartridges and toxic dusts and mists prefilters.



 

Silicones and Natural Rubbers

Silicones and natural rubber can be used as sealants, adhesives, molds, and mold releases.  There are two basic types of silicone resins: single-component systems that are cured by atmospheric moisture; and two-component systems that are cured by peroxides.  These can contain solvents such as acetone or methylene chloride.  Water-based natural rubber latex can also be used to make molds.  Other compounds include rubber or contact cements containing rubber dissolved in solvents such as hexane, naphtha, and 1,1,1-trichloroethane.  Rubber cements and latex rubber dry by evaporation.

Hazards
    1.    Single-component silicones (including spray types) release acetic acid or methanol into the air.  The acetic acid is irritating to the eyes and respiratory system.  Methanol is a nervous system poison and is moderately toxic by inhalation.
    2.    The silicone resin in two-component systems is moderately toxic and irritating by skin contact.
    3.    See below for the hazards of peroxides.
    4.    Natural rubber latexes contain skin-irritating chemicals, and can cause severe allergic reactions in some people.
    5.    n-Hexane, found in some rubber cements and contact adhesives, is extremely flammable, and can cause peripheral nervous system damage chronic inhalation.
    6.    Methylene chloride is highly toxic by inhalation.  It may cause narcosis and changes in heart rhythm (arrhythmia).  It is also converted into carbon monoxide in the body.  Smokers and people with heart problems are at higher risk.
    7.    1,1,1-Trichloroethane is moderately toxic by inhalation, and can cause death at very high concentrations (e.g. in enclosed spaces).

Precautions
    1.    Substitute water-based or heptane-based rubber cements and contact adhesives.
    2.    Use rubber cements containing hexane with good ventilation to prevent build-up of vapors.  Do not allow smoking or open flames when hexane or acetone is present.  Store large amounts (greater than one pint) in approved safety containers.
    3.    People with heart problems should not use methylene chloride-containing products.
    4.    Wear gloves and goggles when handling silicone resins, rubber latex or solvents.
    5.    See the section on organic peroxides.

 
Organic Peroxides

Organic peroxides are commonly used as hardeners or catalysts (more accurately initiators) for curing polyester, acrylic, and some types of silicone resins.  Common peroxides used are benzoyl peroxide, methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (not to be confused with the solvent methyl ethyl ketone), and cumene hydroperoxide.  Usually these peroxides come as liquids or pastes dissolved in materials like dimethyl phthalate.

Hazards
    1.    All organic peroxides are highly flammable and often explosive.  Benzoyl peroxide becomes a shock-sensitive explosive above 120F (49C) and explodes above 176F (80 C). Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide (MEK peroxide) can decompose by sunlight and explodes above 230F (110C); it is extremely shock sensitive.  These peroxides can also decompose explosively when mixed with mineral acids, plastic resin accelerators, and many combustibles.  MEK peroxide forms an explosive mixture with acetone.
    2.    Methyl ethyl ketone peroxide can cause blindness if splashed in the eyes. Cumene hydroperoxide is moderately toxic by skin and eye contact and may have cumulative effects.  It may also cause allergies.  Benzoyl peroxide is only slightly toxic by skin contact, and somewhat more toxic by eye contact.

Precautions
    1.    Store peroxides separately from other combustible materials, and keep in original (never glass) containers.
    2.    Do not store large amounts of organic peroxides, or keep them for long periods of time.
    3.    Never dilute peroxides with other materials.  Never add accelerators to peroxides, or acetone to MEK peroxide.
    4.    Do not heat peroxides.
    5.    Use disposable paper cups and wooden sticks for mixing small amounts of resin and peroxide.  Otherwise use polyethylene, glass, or stainless steel containers.
    6.    Soak all tools and containers in water before disposal.
    7.    Clean up spills immediately by soaking up the peroxide with vermiculite if in liquid form, or with wet vermiculite if in powder or paste form.  Do not sweep since this has been known to start fires.  Use nonsparking tools to clean up.
    8.    Do not discard unused peroxide or peroxide/vermiculite mixtures; this can cause a fire or explosion.  Peroxides can be disposed of by reacting with the plastic resin or by carefully reacting with a 10% sodium hydroxide solution.



                                                                                        plastics (Wikipedia image)





Finished Plastics

Plastic sheets, blocks, and film can be fabricated by cutting, drilling, carving, sawing, heating, vacuum forming, and many  other methods which use physical tools or processes.

Examples of plastics which can be treated in this way include acrylic (lucite, Plexiglas), polyvinyl chloride, polystyrene, polyethylene, and polypropylene.  Foamed plastics (e.g. polystyrene and polyurethane) can also be sawed, sanded, and heated to form it into various shapes.  Some plastics, such as polystyrene, polyvinyl acetate, and polyvinyl chloride, are available as molding pellets which can be heated in a mold.

Plastics can be glued with solvent cements or other adhesives.

Hazards
    1.    Some polymer dusts may cause irritation or allergies if inhaled due to the presence of an unreacted monomer of other additives.  Examples are phenolic and amino plastics, acrylic powder, and polyurethane dusts.
    2.    Heat decomposition of finished plastics can result from processes such as hot wire cutting, electric sanding, drilling, and sawing, producing highly toxic gases such as carbon monoxide, monomers, nitrogen oxides and hydrogen cyanide.

    3.    Heating acrylic plastic results in decomposition to the monomer methyl methacrylate, a respiratory irritant, sensitizer and narcotic (see the section on Acrylic Resins).
    4.    Heat decomposition of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) occurs above about 400F (205C), releasing highly toxic hydrogen chloride gas.  Exposure can cause "meatwrappers asthma", a disease noted among meatwrappers who hot wire PVC film.

    5.    Heat decomposition of foamed polystyrene (styrofoam) or polyurethane can release a large variety of highly toxic gases including nitrogen oxides, hydrogen cyanide, carbon monoxide, and monomers (e.g., styrene).
    6.    Heating polyfluorocarbons can cause polymer fume fever, a disease similar to metal fume fever, with symptoms of nausea, chills, fever, headaches, coughing, and shortness of breath. This is often caused by smoking a cigarette in the presence of fluorocarbon dust.  The cigarette's heat is high enough to decompose the fluorocarbon.

    7.    Many of the solvents used to cement plastics are highly toxic.  Acrylic cements in particular commonly contain chlorinated hydrocarbons such as ethylene dichloride or methylene chloride.  Both are probable human carcinogens and narcotics, especially ethylene dichloride, which can also cause liver and kidney damage.  Methylene chloride is converted into carbon monoxide in the body and can cause heart arrhythmias. This is especially hazardous for smokers and people with heart problems.
Precautions

    1.    Have good general ventilation or local exhaust ventilation when fabricating plastics.  Use water-cooled or air-cooled tools to keep decomposition of the plastic to a minimum. In heat fabrication processes, use the lowest temperature possible to avoid decomposition of the plastic.
    2.    You may need an organic vapor respirator to work safely with acrylic plastics if you do not have adequate ventilation.  Use a NIOSH-approved respirator with combination organic vapor/acid gas cartridges with PVC.
    3.    Sanders, saws, and other electric tools that generate a lot of dust should be equipped with dust-collectors.
    4.    Clean up by vacuuming or wet mopping; not sweeping.
    5.    Wear gloves and goggles when handling solvent cements.  Use as low toxicity a solvent as possible, for example, acetone instead of chlorinated solvents.

 


Plastics Additives


Additives used with plastics and their resins include plasticizers, stabilizers (e.g., ultraviolet absorbers andantioxidants), colorants (dyes and pigments), fillers (e.g., talc, quartz, clay, fused silica), reinforcements (e.g., fiberglass), fire retardants, inhibitors, accelerators, and solvents. Inhibitors and plasticizers may be already in the resin or added later.

Hazards and Precautions
These additives are discussed in other CSA data sheets: mineral additives, and phthalate plasticizers - "Traditional Sculpture;" pigments - "Art Painting and Drawing;" and dyes - "Dyeing Safely."
Many organic phosphate esters can be absorbed through the skin, and inhalation or ingestion may cause central nervous system damage, possibly leading to paralysis, convulsions or anesthetic effects.  Some act like mild nerve gases, and are skin, eye, and respiratory system irritants.  Examples are tributyl phosphate, tri-para-cresyl phosphate, and the most toxic tri-orthocresyl phosphate (TOCP), which should be avoided.

* This data sheet was adapted from chapter 16 of Artist Beware by Michael McCann.



Art Hazard News, Volume 18, No. 4, 1995


Epoxy Resin and Dermatitis Insert: Art Hazard News, Volume 12, No. 1, 1989





This article was originally printed for Art Hazard News, ゥ copyright Center for Safety in the Arts 1989 and 1995. It appears on nontoxicprint courtesy of the Health in the Arts Program, University of Illinois at Chicago, who have curated a collection of these articles from their archive which are still relevant to artists today.



Nontoxicprint:     a private, not-for-profit and academic Research Resource

                           on Printmaking and Painting    |

                            advice on materials and suppliers, brands and company links,

                            is solely given for artist's evaluation, education

                            and research purposes, and is non-commercial